The disease is now expected to spread over China and the Far-East. The strong international collaboration network of research and development that spread disease-resistant strains some 40 years ago and started the Green Revolution , known as CGIAR , was since slowly starved of research funds because of its own success and is now too atrophied to swiftly react to the new threat.
Sundquist  points out that large areas of croplands are lost year after year, due mainly to soil erosion , water depletion and urbanisation. Additionally, agricultural production is also lost due to water depletion.
–08 world food price crisis - Wikipedia
Northern China in particular has depleted much of its non-renewables aquifers , which now impacts negatively its crop production. Urbanisation is another, smaller, difficult to estimate cause of annual cropland reduction. One possible environmental factor in the food price crisis is rising background levels of ground-level tropospheric ozone in the atmosphere.
Plants have been shown to have a high sensitivity to ozone levels, and lower yields of important food crops, such as wheat and soybeans, may have been a result of elevated ozone levels. Ozone levels in the Yangtze Delta were studied for their effect on oilseed rape , a member of the cabbage family that produces one-third of the vegetable oil used in China.
Plants grown in chambers that controlled ozone levels exhibited a 10—20 percent reduction in size and weight biomass when exposed to elevated ozone levels. Production of seeds and oil was also reduced. From the beginning of to early , the prices of some of the most basic international food commodities increased dramatically on international markets. In some nations, milk and meat prices more than doubled, while soy which hit a year high price in December  and maize prices have increased dramatically.
Researchers from the Overseas Development Institute have suggested this problem will be worsened by a likely fall in food aid. To ensure that food remains available for their domestic populations and to combat dramatic price inflation, major rice exporters, such as China, Brazil, India, Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia and Egypt, imposed strict export bans on rice.
North Korea suffered from the food crisis to such extent that a North Korean official was quoted in June '08 with saying "Life is more than difficult. It seems that everyone is going to die". A May national survey found that food banks and pantries across the US were being forced to cut back on food distribution as 99 percent of respondents reported an increase in the number of people requesting services. Rising food and fuel prices, inadequate food stamp benefits, unemployment, underemployment, and rent or mortgage costs were factors reported as forcing an average of 15—20 percent more people.
According to the California Association of Food Banks, which is an umbrella organization of nearly all food banks in the state, food banks are at the "beginning of a crisis". If global price movements are transmitted to local markets, farmers in the developing world could benefit from the rising price of food. According to researchers from the Overseas Development Institute , this may depend on farmers' capacity to respond to changing market conditions.
Experience suggests that farmers lack the credit and inputs needed to respond in the short term. In the medium or long term, however, they could benefit, as seen in the Asian Green Revolution or in many African countries in the recent past. As grain prices increased, China's numerous small-holding milk farmers, as well as producers of feed for cattle, were unable to exist economically. As a result, they turned to putting additives into the feed and milk, including melamine , to boost the measured level of protein.
Hundreds of thousands of children became ill, China's milk exports virtually ended, executives and officials were arrested and some executed, and companies went bankrupt.
2007–08 world food price crisis
Dozens of people, including at least 20 police officials, were injured in the violence. Ironically, the country achieved food self-sufficiency in , but food prices increased drastically due to the reliance of agriculture on oil and fossil fuels. In April , the Brazilian government announced a temporary ban on the export of rice. The ban is intended to protect domestic consumers. One of the earlier food riots took place in Burkina Faso, on 22 February, when rioting broke out in the country's second and third largest cities over soaring food prices up to a 65 percent increase , sparing the capital, Ouagadougou , where soldiers were mobilized throughout strategic points.
The government promised to lower taxes on food and to release food stocks. Over people were arrested in one of the towns. A ban was also imposed on exportation of cereals. Cameroon, the world's fourth largest cocoa producer, saw large scale rioting in late February in Douala, the country's commercial capital. Protesters were against inflating food and fuel prices, as well as the attempt by President Paul Biya to extend his year rule. Protesters set up barricades, burned tires, and targeted businesses that they believed belonged to the Biya family, high members of the ruling party, the government, or France.
The government reached an agreement with retailers by which prices would be lowered in exchange for the reduced import taxes. As of late April , however, reports suggested that prices had not eased and in some cases had even increased. On 24 April , the government of Cameroon announced a two-year emergency program designed to double Cameroon's food production and achieve food self-sufficiency. In Egypt, a boy was killed from a gunshot to the head after Egyptian police intervened in violent demonstrations over rising food prices that gripped the industrial city of Mahalla on 8 April Drought and the food price crisis threatened thousands in Ethiopia.
India has banned the export of rice except for Basmati which attracts a premium price. The ban has since been removed, and India now exports a variety of rice. Street protests over the price of food took place in Indonesia  where food staples and gasoline have nearly doubled in price since January The measure was carried out in an attempt to control inflation, which stood at an annual rate of 4.
Bimbo has also acquired five bakeries in the United States and Canada. In mid February, rioting that started in the Mozambican rural town of Chokwe and then spread to the capital, Maputo , has resulted in at least four deaths. The riots were reported in the media to have been, at least in part, over food prices and were termed "food riots". A biofuel advocacy publication, however, claimed that these were, in fact, "fuel riots", limited to the rise in the cost of diesel, and argued that the "food riot" characterization worked to fan "anti-biofuels sentiment".
The Pakistan Army has been deployed to avoid the seizure of food from fields and warehouses. This hasn't stopped the food prices from increasing. The new government has been blamed for not managing the countries food stockpiles properly. Once the world's top rice producer, has produced enough rice to feed itself until now.
Rice exports dropped over four decades from nearly 4 million tons to only about 40, tons last year, mostly due to neglect by Myanmar's ruling generals of infrastructure, including irrigation and warehousing. On 3 May Cyclone Nargis stripped Myanmar's rice-growing districts, ruining large areas with salt water. Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that these areas produce 65 percent of Myanmar's rice. Worries of long-term food shortages and rationing are rife.
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The military regime says nothing about the rice crisis, but continues to export rice at the same rate. So we're likely to see considerable food and rice shortages for the next couple of years. The damage to the economy is going to be profound. In Panama, in response to higher rice prices the government began buying rice at the high market price and selling rice to the public at a lower subsidized price at food kiosks.
In the Philippines, the Arroyo government insisted on 13 April that there would be no food riots in the country and that there could be no comparison with Haiti's situation.
We don't have a food shortage. So, no comparison On 15 April, the Philippines, the world's largest rice importer, urged China, Japan, and other key Asian nations, to convene an emergency meeting, especially taking issue with those countries' rice export bans. The Russian government pressured retailers to freeze food prices before key elections for fear of a public backlash against the rising cost of food in October On 31 March , Senegal had riots in response to the rise in the price of food and fuel.
Twenty-four people were arrested and detained in a response that one local human rights group claimed included "torture" and other "unspeakable acts" on the part of the security forces. Riots in Somalia occurred on 5 May over the price of food, in which five protesters were killed. The protests occurred amid a serious humanitarian emergency due to the Ethiopian war in Somalia. The Christian Science Monitor , neweurasia, and other media observers are predicting that a nascent hunger crisis will erupt into a full famine as a consequence of the energy shortages. Food riots in southern Yemen that began in late March and continued through early April, saw police stations torched, and roadblocks were set up by armed protesters.
The army has deployed tanks and other military vehicles. Although the riots involved thousands of demonstrators over several days and over arrests, officials claimed no fatalities; residents, however, claimed that at least one of the fourteen wounded people has died. The FAO released a study in December projecting a 49 percent increase in African cereal prices, and 53 percent in European prices, through July On 28 April , the United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon established a Task Force on the Global Food Security Crisis  under his chairmanship and composed of the heads of the United Nations specialized agencies, funds and programmes, Bretton Woods institutions and relevant parts of the UN Secretariat to co-ordinate efforts to alleviate the crisis.
The impacts of the spike on poor people were concentrated in low-income countries and may have been less severe than once thought, thanks to rising rural wages in some countries. The researchers called on developing countries to ensure good data on the key indicators of distress and to strengthen social protection , and on those involved in international development to continue increasing focus on reducing child malnutrition and stimulating agricultural development.
We need the World Bank, the IMF, all the big foundations, and all the governments to admit that, for 30 years, we all blew it, including me when I was President. We were wrong to believe that food was like some other product in international trade, and we all have to go back to a more responsible and sustainable form of agriculture.
The release of Japan's rice reserves onto the market may bring the rice price down significantly. In June , a sustained commitment from the G8 was called for by some humanitarian organizations. In December , the global economic slowdown , decreasing oil prices , and speculation of decreased demand for commodities worldwide brought about sharp decreases in the price of staple crops from their earlier highs.
By early , food prices had risen again to surpass the record highs of Some commentators saw this as the resumption of the price spike seen in — From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Commodity index fund.