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An extensive literature regarding emerging research in the field of cognitive computing using human neural responses has been explored. Focus has been paid to explore the ability of EEG signals to portray cognitive activity of human subjects to develop control applications.
The importance of cognitive neuroscience and methods of detection of correlated activities is well discussed in the literature . The progressive advancements in cognitive analysis techniques provide a strong scientific foundation to revolutionize neuro-rehabilitation and the field of biomedical informatics . A diverse set of BCIs has been developed to implement external prosthetic devices such as robotic arm, wheel chair movement etc by translating neural signals into control signals .
BCI systems have been evolved tremendously even to provide hands-free applications through interpretation of silent thoughts captured via human neural responses. The development and usefulness of these prosthetic devices is not only meant for physically challenged people but also for assisting healthy users in their normal routine and occupational work.
Above findings reveal the discrimination ability of EEG, which can be explored further to map and capture specific events of neurocognitive processes. For relatively long cognitive events, the general practice is to divide the whole task into multiple trials .
Correlated EEG parameters can be extracted by calculating average across trials. By capturing and analysing cognitive activity related significant variations in acquired EEG, it is possible to develop a required control application. However, these subtle variations in EEG are difficult to monitor and analyse visually by naked human eye. Thus, computer assisted algorithms are gaining popularity to develop automated control applications via identifying variations in EEG. Most of the researches involve analysis of ERPs of the brain electrical activity. However, ERP events are very brief ms , thus a relatively large number of trials are required, that are averaged together to obtain resultant ERP .
To overcome this limitation, power spectral analysis can be utilized as an efficient tool to find the neural correlates during cognitive tasks . However, power spectral analysis is not able to preserve Fourier phase of input signal which provides information related to morphological variations in the captured signal .
This may provide misguided results if variations in peak amplitude are not so prominent. This drawback of linear techniques has been addressed well in literature to further develop higher order spectra based non-linear feature extraction techniques . The motive of this research is to explore the methodology for examining human neural responses via EEG during cognition and provide a substantial conclusion to generate commands for automated neural driven control applications.
The availability and features of commercially available EEG acquisition devices required to acquire neuro cognitive responses were explored. A vast set of acquisition devices viz. Most of the reported work involve the use of more complex headset units like Biosemi Active-2 with scalp channels involving tedious instrumentation or only a single channel device like NeuroSky covering only left frontal region of cerebral cortex to capture human neural responses.
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Due to a real user-friendly interface,a robust emotive EEG neuroheadset has been selected for this research to capture live EEG from human subjects to develop more interactive BCIs for control applications. It can be observed from literature that very few works have been reported to develop control applications using volunteer eye blink via EEG as a modality and arduino as an interfacing device. An attempt has been made in this research, to develop an intentional eye blink based BCI via capturing corresponding EEGs. The performed single eye blink based instances have been identified at frontal channel AF3.
An algorithm has been developed to translate the captured variations in EEG into commands to generate active high at interfaced arduino output. This high output at arduino port has been utilized to control the on-off instances of interfaced LED circuit. The developed model has further been deployed in arduino using simulink to be used independently while controlling output devices.
The proposed model has the ability to be developed as a tool for neuro-rehabilitation by translating distinct cognitive brain states into operative control signals.
The following sections of the paper will include material and methodology used to acquire EEG signals, their analysis and algorithm for control application. Furthermore, results and analytical discussion will be done and finally concluded with future scope. Materials and Methods In this work, an EEG-based BCI is developed to capture and characterize variations in human neural responses via EEG while performing an intentional eye blink based cognitive activity. The functional work flow of the developed BCI is sketched in Fig.
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It consists of signal acquisition unit to acquire human neural activity via EEG during the instance of deliberate eye blink, signal processing and algorithm development to characterize variations in EEG captured for performed cognitive activity. The output of signal processing module is interfaced with arduino uno board to control the output device. Subjects Ten subjects 7 females, 3 males , aged 14 to 18, all of whom were considered to be in good health with no consumption of any medicine or drug prior to the test, participated in the experiment to construct the required EEG signal dataset.
Each participant equipped with EEG acquisition unit while performing designed cognitive activity i.
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All subjects volunteered with informed written consent before the experiment. Each subject is asked to perform a deliberate single eye blink action during a 20s record of each EEG. A total of 50 EEG trials have been obtained by capturing five trials from each subject. Human neural responses of participating subjects have also been acquired during relaxed state.
EEG data recording The EEG signals for each subject were recorded while performing a designed cognitive task of single deliberate eye blink. The acquired EEG signal is transmitted to laptop through the wireless Bluetooth dongle. The EEG dataset is recorded at a sampling frequency of Hz and is saved as.
Emotiv headset is equipped with an internal high pass filter with cut-off frequency of 0. Further, notch filters have been incorporated to reject power supply based interference and thus helps in pre-processing of acquired EEG signals . The proposed approach is developed and implemented using Core i3 processor with speed 2. Distinct epochs of the acquired dataset locked to actions of interest are extracted to study the corresponding EEG-dynamics.
The volunteer eye blink related signals attained by each of the electrodes of emotive headset are extracted and plotted as shown in Fig 2 for one subject. It can be observed that eye blink related variations in EEG are maximum captured by first four frontal channels viz. The similar instances have been observed in eye blink signals attained from other subjects. The extracted signals at frontal channels are scaled by subtracting the mean value of signal from original signal. The two values are compared and a decision is made to generate a control signal for neuro-rehabilitation if maximum peak amplitude is greater than calculated threshold as depicted in workflow shown in Fig.
Furthermore, channel power spectral analysis using fast Fourier transform FFT has been performed to extract the dominant frequency band viz. Power spectral analysis facilitates detailed statistical analysis eye blink related subtle variations in acquired EEG that may get missed during visual inspection of records. This will switch on the connected LED. The anode of LED is connected to pin D11 of arduino and cathode is grounded. Similarly, arduino has been interfaced to Simulink so that designed model can be deployed in arduino to be used independently to control output devices.
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A new blank model was created in Simulink. Once all the inputs and outputs are connected, the constructed simulink model as shown in Fig. The detailed step by step methodology is depicted in Fig 5. Rashima Mahajana et al. Results and Discussion The various results recorded from an experiment EEG-based cognitive BCI designed to map an intentional single eye blink of human subjects with respective neural activation via electroencephalography are presented and described in this section.
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At the end of this course,you should be able to build your own and custom Human Computer Interface for your project. Creative Commons 4. Series and Parallel circuits. Resistors and Resistance Language Undefined.